Saint Germain Agreement

Unlike its former Hungarian partner, Austria had never been a nation in the literal sense of the word. While the Austrian state had existed in one way or another for more than 700 years, it had no liaison force apart from loyalty to the Habsburgs. As Austrian national identity did not exist until 1945 and developed, people had a German national consciousness. Article 88 of the Treaty required Austria not to directly or indirectly compromise its independence, which meant that Austria could not enter into a political or economic union with the German Reich without the agreement of the Council of the League of Nations. As a result the original German-Austrian name of the new Republic of Austria had to be changed. Many Austrians would find this term difficult because of Austria`s subsequent economic weakness, due to the loss of land (especially among Austrians, who would represent a large majority in favour of a single German nation-state). For all these reasons, Austria then supported the idea of the attachment (political union) to Nazi Germany. The Hungarian government opposed the provisions of the Treaty of Saint-Germain and supported right-wing paramilitary troops to prevent the Austrian state from taking control of the region in April 1921. After fighting and a few atrocities, the two governments agreed on a compromise in the Venice Convention of 13 October 1921: Hungary agreed to end paramilitary violence and let the Austrian administration take over most of the territory that was to become Burgenland. The region around the designated capital `Denburg/Sopron would remain under Hungarian administration until a referendum is decided on its future.

The referendum took place between 14 and 16 December 1921 under conditions that were still controversial. With a turnout of almost 89%, a majority of 63.4% voted in favour of integration in Hungary and 34% in favour of Austria (the other votes were void). The treaty marked the official end of the First World War for Austria and for the majority of states and kingdoms that included the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, with the exception of Hungary, which was to sign its own peace treaty, the Treaty of Trianon, on 4 June 1920. The economic clauses (Articles 217-275) dealt with trade relations, tariffs and tariffs, which were mainly aimed at securing trade rights favourable to the countries of allied and associated powers. The Treaty of Versailles signed with Germany on 28 June 1919 officially ended the war between Germany and the Allies and the associated powers, but did not end the peace negotiations. There were still agreements with the German partners that formed the central powers during the First World War: Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. The first was Austria. Austrian officials protested against the violation of the principle of self-determination in the treaty, the placement of so many ethnic Germans under Czechoslovakian and Italian rule, and the prohibition of union with Germany. The Austria created by the treaty was financially and militarily weak and, consequently, chronic instability in Europe between the two world wars. Austria, World War I, Peace, Peace Conference, Treaty The Treaty of Versaille had imposed large military clauses on Germany. Austria has faced similar treatment, but not of the same magnitude.

The Austrian army was limited to only 30,000 men. Although its number may seem small, it must be kept in mind that many members of the Austrian army, who had fought in the First World War, came from territories of the former empire, which now had their own independence and armies. The figure of 30,000 was considered just to allow Austria to defend itself, especially since communism entered Russia and many in Europe feared that it would spread to western Europe.